Motto: "I thu chhiarin a siam che"

Tuesday, June 30, 2009

The 100th Anniversary of The Story of My Life

By Helen Keller—In Her Own Words

Helen Keller began writing The Story of My Life in 1902, when she was 22 years old and still a student at Radcliffe College, the sister school of Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Helen Keller, on her graduation from Radcliffe College, circa 1904 The Story of My Life contains three parts. The first is Helen Keller's autobiographical account of her life from childhood to the beginning of her studies at Radcliffe. This chronicle describes the transformation of Helen's life brought about by the arrival of Anne Sullivan, her teacher and mentor, when she succeeded in conveying to Helen the "mystery of language." Part II contains Helen's letters to family and friends, arranged in chronological sequence, and documents her growth in thought and expression through her writing.

The introduction and editorial comments in this section were contributed by John Macy, an editor of the Youth's Companion magazine and an instructor at Harvard who became the literary agent for Ms. Keller and editor of many of her works. The third part, a supplementary section, contains an account of Helen Keller's life and education written by John Macy, based for the most part on the records and observations of Anne Sullivan. The Story of My Life first appeared as a serial of several installments in the Ladies Home Journal in 1902 and was met with universal acclaim. In 1903 it was published in book form by Doubleday, Page & Co. and became a critical and commercial success.

The Story of My Life has become an enduring classic of American literature. It was always to be the most popular of Helen Keller's works, with numerous editions published throughout the years. Today, the book is available in more than 50 languages, including most European languages, Swedish, Russian, and Japanese, as well as Marathi, Pushtu, Tagalog, and Vedu. The American Foundation for the Blind—the organization to which Helen Keller devoted more than 40 years of her life—is presenting this special online edition of The Story of My Life to commemorate the centennial of the book's publication. Throughout this edition, spelling and punctuation are rendered as they were in the original. The photographs, taken from the Helen Keller Archives of the American Foundation for the Blind, are for the most part those printed in the original. When an original photograph was unavailable, the closest possible facsimile was used. AFB was founded in 1921 and for decades guided by Helen Keller—an inspiring, courageous woman who fervently believed that blind people, with just a little help, can lead independent lives and give much more to society than they will ever take. Today, there are many more people, from newborns to the growing elder population, in need of a helping hand than Helen Keller ever imagined. With your support, the American Foundation for the Blind can reach out to those who need help. Thank you for your support. The Story of My Life, © 2009 American Foundation for the Blind. All rights reserved.
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Sunday, June 28, 2009

US President Obama Policy Thlirletna

View Point (Obama Policy Thlirletna)

US President thlan fel a nih hma kha chuan John McCain-a leh Barack Obama ten ram chhung ram pawnah engang policy nge an hman dawn tih hriat kan chak tlang hle a, a tlangpui chu hriat tawh a nih avangin thai lang tawh lo mai ila. Obama-an President nihna a chelh thlaruk a lo kim meuh chuan a policy-te pawh a fiah deuh deuh niin a lang a, tun tumah hian US ram chhunga a policy a bawihzui dante leh ram pawna a policy tlangpuite kan thlirho leh dawn a ni.
Terrorist-ten kum 2001-a World Trade Center an tihchhiah hnu atang khan US chuan immigration lamah theihtawp chhuahin tan a la nasa hle a, US ramri apiangah intelligence service pawh tam tak a dah a ni. Amaherawhchu US ah hian dan lova lut an reh chuang hauh lova, tunah pawh dan lova hnathawk mi tam tak an awm a ni. Bush-a khan eng emaw chen chu ri lo kham ve tawh mah se Obama erawh chuan dan lova hnathawkhote chu dan anga an chungthu rel hmiah hmiah tawh tur a nih thu a sawi a. US Immigration and Customer Enforcement Agency-a John Morton-a phei chuan, “US ram chhunga dan lova hnathawk reng reng chuan karkhatah darkar 40 chuang an thawk ang a, overtime pawh an dawng hek lovang. Tunah hian hengho hi kan man zel tawh ang a, dan angin an chungthu kan rel zel tawh dawn a ni,” a ti.
Mexico ramri atanga drug, silai leh pawisa lem rawn lut tam lutuk chungchangah Obama chuan intelligence-te fimkhur turin thu a pe a, he thil bawhzui tur hian White House-a The Office of National Drug Control Policy- te mawhphurna a pe bawk a ni. Obama chuan Intelligence agency-te chu headquarter neia inrelbawl turin leh chuta tanga hmuntina operational organization-te din turin thu a pe bawk.
Obama-an a ram chhung policy-a a ngaih pawimawh em em pakhat chu Healthcare Reform hi a ni. Healhcare chungchangah June thla tantirh khan US Congress hmaah US in hriselna tha zawk a mamawhzia sawiin thil man tihtlawm a tul thu te, US- a thil siamchhuah reng reng chu customer-te dun dan ang ngeia quality tha taka siam a tul thute pawh uar takin a sawi.
US in hman atang tawha a buaipui ber chu “abortion” hi a ni a, US Presidential Election- ah pawh hei subject hi an debate nasa thei hle a ni. US inawp dan chu federal inawpna a nih avangin state pakhat leh pakhat inawp dan pawh a inang lo deuh theu va, “abortion” an hrilhfiah dan leh pawm dante pawh a inang lo hle a ni. State hnih/khat chuan “abortion” chu state leh local dan nena inmilin pawm mah se mi tam zawkten Baibul nena in mil thei lo thil nia an hmuh tlat avangin vawin thlengin he subject hi an la inhnial chhunzawm zel a ni.
Democrat-ho chuan a tlangpuiin abortion an pawm lova, Obama policy pawh hian abortion chu a pawm lo hle a ni. Dan lo anga abortion siamtute pawh US Justice Department chuan a zawngchhuak mek a, he department hian US hmun hrang hrangah state and local law inforcement agencies hrang hrangte a din ang a, dan lova tualthatna chi hrang hrang pawh an haichhuak zel tawh dawn a ni.
George W Bush-a term zawh hma daih atang khan human rights activists-te chuan Cuba thlirkara terrorist-ho dahkhawmna Guantanamo lungin chu khar turin Bush-a kha a ngen nasa hle a, he lungin avang hian US pawh a hmingchhe hle a ni. He lungin hi khar tura thupek tawh ni mah se lungin tangho chungthu rel dan turah US in buaina lian tak a nei a, lungin tangte hi anmahni ram theuhva thawn nge tha anga US lungin chhunga dah tha zawk ang tih chu an buaipui ber a ni. Pesident George W Bush-a hun atang chuahva terrorist lungin tangte chungthu roreltu pawl ( Military Commission) din a ni a, Obama erawh chuan terrorist-te chunga Bush-a policy chu siamthat leh a duh a. Thi ngei tura hrem tuar turte (death penalty)-ho hian ngaihdam dil theihna an nei nge nei lo tih dan fel tak an la siam loh avangin tunah hian dan tlangpui an zan mek a, he dan tlangpui hi zam fel a nih hnu chuan Congress-ah an thehlut ang a, Congress chuan fimkhur takin a lo ngaihtuah dawn a ni. Amaherawhchu kum 2006-a Military Commission an siam hmaa, World Trade Center tichhe tura ruahmanna siamtute leh September 11,2001-a World Trade Center tichhe tura a mawh phurtu chu keima ka ni e, tia inpuangtu Khalid Sheikh Mohanmed-a te erawh chu ngaihdam theih an ni dawn nge dawn lo tih hriat mai theih a ni lo. Military Commission prosecutor-te zinga mi thenkaht chuan heng mite pawh hian ngaihdam dilna chu an siam thei tur a ni an ti a, he boruak hi Obama chuan Congress rorel dan ngaichangin a bawhzui dawn niin a lang.
June Ni 4 khan Obama chuan Muslim khawvel a fang a, US leh Muslim khawvelte indawrtawna siamthat tumin Aigupta, Cairo khawpuiah Middle East chunga US policy-te a sawi a. A bik takin Israel leh Palestine-te inkara buaina tireh tur chuan Israel-in Gaza Strip-a building a sak belh zelte chu Israel-in a titawp hmiah tur a ni a ti a, Israel leh US te inkarah pawh inhmuhthiamlohna eng emaw a thleng hial a ni. Kum 1979 atang khan US leh Iran te chuan diplomatic relation an nei tawh lova, mahse Obama hian US leh Muslim khawvelte inzawmna siamthat a tum tlat avangin Iran nena dawhkan chunga thusawiho turin Iran chu a sawm a, Iran in a sawmna a ngai pawimawh lo a nih erawh chuan tun aia nasa zawka economic sanction siam a tum thu pawh a sawilang nghal bawk. Iran chunga Obama policy hi hriatthiam a har deuh avangin Nem Rum tak Policy ti mai ila kan fiah thei mai awm e.
June Ni 6 khan Obama chu D-Day 65-na hmang turin France khawpui Colleville-Sur-Mer-ah a thlawk a. A thusawi tum chuan Muslim khawvela EU hruaitute inrawlh turin leh Muslim ramte nena inlaichinna siam turin a ngen bawk a, Turkey- in Europian Union membership a dilna chungchangah erawh France President Nicholas Sarkozy-a nen an inbak nasa hle thung a ni. Turkey-in EU membership a dilna chungchangah France remtihlohna leh EU rama sawarkar department leh zirna sikul thenkahta Muslim hmeichheho lukhuh phal loh chungchang an zawh tum chuan Obama an,” EU member-a Turkey a tel ve chu thil pawimawh tak mai a ni a, President Sarkozy-a erawh chuan ngaihdan danglam tak a nei tlat a nih hi! Turkey chu France thiantha a ni ang a, US thiantha pawh a ni bawk ang a, EU ramte thiantha pawh a ni bawk tur a ni. US in Muslim khawvela remna a zawn ang bawkin France leh EU member-te pawhin mawhphurna lian tak an nei a ni. Muslim ramte pawh khawvel community-a an rawn tel ve kan phalin kan lo welcome ve tur a ni. Muslim kahwvelte nena inrem tak leh lungrual taka kal dun hi kan mawhphurna lian ber a ni tur a ni,” tih a sawi a. President Sarkozy-a pawh chuan Obama policy chu a tlangpuiin a pawm a, Turkey nena inzawmna leh inlaichinna neih chu thil tul tak a ni tih sawi mah se, “ Europe hian ram ri a nei tur a ni a, EU hi khawvela ral muang ber niin ka hria a, chu muanna chu a chhait mai lova, kan vawna kan humhalh tlat theih nan France chuan Turkey dilna hi tunah rih chuan a la amen thei lo cheu chu a ni e,” tih a sawi tel bawk.
Ram chhung ram pawna Obama policy chu tha hle in lang mah se Israel leh US te inkara inhmuhthiamlohna leh EU nena an policy inanlohna te hi engangin nge an chinfel dawn tih erawh chu histawri kal zelin a rawn hril ngeiin a rinawm a, Iran, Iraq, North Korea leh Afaganistan ramahte hian Obama hian engang policy nge a hman zel dawn tihte pawh kan la thirho leh dawn ania.

Saturday, June 27, 2009

Hruaitu Vision

By Thangmawia
San Chaung

Thuhmahruai Zofate hian kan tawngah sap tawng kan seng lut nasa em em a, tawngkam then khat phei chu kan pianpui tawngkam ang maiin kan hmang a. Sap tawng “vision” tih pawh hi pianpui tawng ang maiin kan hmang tawh a, “Engnge i vision?” tiin ka inzawt ta fova mai a ni. Mi tam zawk chuan a awmzia sawifiah ngai miah lovin he zawhna hi kan hre thiam thei nghal awm e. Vision tih tawngkam hian awmzia a nei nual a. J. F. Laldailova chuan vision awmzia chu ti hian a hrilhfiah a: mit kawhhmuh, thil hmuh, inlarna, mitthla, leh hun thlir lawk thiamna tih te a ni. Tun tuma kan sawi tum ber chu hun thlir lawk thiamna lam pang a ni ang.

Tuesday, June 23, 2009

First Things First: Facts About US Presidential Inaugurations


First Things First: Facts About Presidential Inaugurations By Sharon Shahid, senior Web editor At the beginning of his second term in 1805, Thomas Jefferson became the first president to participate in a tradition that has become a staple of presidential inaugurations: the inaugural procession on Pennsylvania Avenue. As Washington and the nation prepares for the inauguration, the Newseum — located along the parade route on Pennsylvania Avenue — highlights some of the historic firsts surrounding presidential inaugurations. • • 

1845: James K. Polk’s inauguration was the first to be reported by telegraph. Samuel Morse, inventor of the telegraph, transmitted news of the ceremony to Baltimore from a telegraph set up on the inaugural platform at the U.S. Capitol. • • 

1897: William McKinley’s inaugural parade was the first to be recorded on movie film. • • 

1909: William Howard Taft’s wife, Helen, became the first first lady to ride in an inaugural parade with her husband from the Capitol to the White House. • • 

1921: Warren G. Harding became the first president to ride in an automobile to and from his inauguration. • • 
1925: Calvin Coolidge’s inaugural was the first to be broadcast nationally over radio. Some 25 million Americans listened; the Associated Press called it “the greatest audience ever addressed by any man.” • • 

1937: Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first president inaugurated on Jan. 20, instead of March 4. His vice president, John Nance Garner, was the first to be sworn in on the same platform as the president. • • 

1949: Harry S. Truman’s inauguration and parade were the first to be televised. An estimated 10 million people watched the events. “Home Viewers Get All of Color, Pomp,” headlined the Chicago Daily Tribune. • • 

1961: John F. Kennedy’s inauguration was the first to be broadcast in color. • • 

1977: Jimmy Carter was the first president to walk from the Capitol to the White House after taking the oath of office. • • 

1981: Ronald Reagan’s inaugural ceremony was the first to be held on the West Front of the Capitol, rather than the East Front.

Friday, June 19, 2009

Quote of the Day (by Aung San Suu Kyi)

The wellspring of courage and endurance in the face of unbridled power is generally a firm belief in the sanctity of ethical principles combined with a historical sense that despite all setbacks the condition of man is set on an ultimate course for both spiritual and material advancement. At the root of human responsibility is the concept of perfection, the urge to achieve it, the intelligence to find a path towards it, and the will to follow that path if not to the end at least the distance needed to rise above individual limitations and environmental impediments. It is man's vision of a world fit for rational, civilized humanity which leads him to dare and to suffer to build societies free from want and fear. Concepts such as truth, justice and compassion cannot be dismissed as trite when these are often the only bulwarks which stand against ruthless power.

By: Aung San Suu Kyi

Friday, June 12, 2009

All Noble Laureates

All Nobel Laureates

809 Nobel Laureates (789 individuals and 20 organizations) have been awarded the Nobel Prize.

2008 - Chemistry, Martin Chalfie
• Chemistry, Osamu Shimomura
• Chemistry, Roger Y. Tsien
• Economics, Paul Krugman
• Literature, Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio
• Medicine, Françoise Barré-Sinoussi
• Medicine, Luc Montagnier
• Medicine, Harald zur Hausen
• Peace, Martti Ahtisaari
• Physics, Makoto Kobayashi
• Physics, Toshihide Maskawa
• Physics, Yoichiro Nambu

2007 - Chemistry, Gerhard Ertl
• Economics, Leonid Hurwicz
• Economics, Eric S. Maskin
• Economics, Roger B. Myerson
• Literature, Doris Lessing
• Medicine, Mario R. Capecchi
• Medicine, Sir Martin J. Evans
• Medicine, Oliver Smithies
• Peace, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
• Peace, Al Gore
• Physics, Albert Fert
• Physics, Peter Grünberg

2006 - Chemistry, Roger D. Kornberg
• Economics, Edmund S. Phelps
• Literature, Orhan Pamuk
• Medicine, Andrew Z. Fire
• Medicine, Craig C. Mello
• Peace, Grameen Bank
• Peace, Muhammad Yunus
• Physics, John C. Mather
• Physics, George F. Smoot

2005 - Chemistry, Yves Chauvin
• Chemistry, Robert H. Grubbs
• Chemistry, Richard R. Schrock
• Economics, Robert J. Aumann
• Economics, Thomas C. Schelling
• Literature, Harold Pinter
• Medicine, Barry J. Marshall
• Medicine, J. Robin Warren
• Peace, International Atomic Energy Agency
• Peace, Mohamed ElBaradei
• Physics, Roy J. Glauber
• Physics, John L. Hall
• Physics, Theodor W. Hänsch

2004 - Chemistry, Aaron Ciechanover
• Chemistry, Avram Hershko
• Chemistry, Irwin Rose
• Economics, Finn E. Kydland
• Economics, Edward C. Prescott
• Literature, Elfriede Jelinek
• Medicine, Richard Axel
• Medicine, Linda B. Buck
• Peace, Wangari Maathai
• Physics, David J. Gross
• Physics, H. David Politzer
• Physics, Frank Wilczek

2003 - Chemistry, Peter Agre
• Chemistry, Roderick MacKinnon
• Economics, Robert F. Engle III
• Economics, Clive W.J. Granger
• Literature, J. M. Coetzee
• Medicine, Paul C. Lauterbur
• Medicine, Sir Peter Mansfield
• Peace, Shirin Ebadi
• Physics, Alexei A. Abrikosov
• Physics, Vitaly L. Ginzburg
• Physics, Anthony J. Leggett

2002 - Chemistry, John B. Fenn
• Chemistry, Koichi Tanaka
• Chemistry, Kurt Wüthrich
• Economics, Daniel Kahneman
• Economics, Vernon L. Smith
• Literature, Imre Kertész
• Medicine, Sydney Brenner
• Medicine, H. Robert Horvitz
• Medicine, John E. Sulston
• Peace, Jimmy Carter
• Physics, Raymond Davis Jr.
• Physics, Riccardo Giacconi
• Physics, Masatoshi Koshiba

2001 - Chemistry, William S. Knowles
• Chemistry, Ryoji Noyori
• Chemistry, K. Barry Sharpless
• Economics, George A. Akerlof
• Economics, A. Michael Spence
• Economics, Joseph E. Stiglitz
• Literature, V. S. Naipaul
• Medicine, Leland H. Hartwell
• Medicine, Tim Hunt
• Medicine, Sir Paul Nurse
• Peace, United Nations
• Peace, Kofi Annan
• Physics, Eric A. Cornell
• Physics, Wolfgang Ketterle
• Physics, Carl E. Wieman

2000 - Chemistry, Alan Heeger
• Chemistry, Alan G. MacDiarmid
• Chemistry, Hideki Shirakawa
• Economics, James J. Heckman
• Economics, Daniel L. McFadden
• Literature, Gao Xingjian
• Medicine, Arvid Carlsson
• Medicine, Paul Greengard
• Medicine, Eric R. Kandel
• Peace, Kim Dae-jung
• Physics, Zhores I. Alferov
• Physics, Jack S. Kilby
• Physics, Herbert Kroemer

1999 - Chemistry, Ahmed Zewail
• Economics, Robert A. Mundell
• Literature, Günter Grass
• Medicine, Günter Blobel
• Peace, Médecins Sans Frontières
• Physics, Gerardus 't Hooft
• Physics, Martinus J.G. Veltman

1998 - Chemistry, Walter Kohn
• Chemistry, John Pople
• Economics, Amartya Sen
• Literature, José Saramago
• Medicine, Robert F. Furchgott
• Medicine, Louis J. Ignarro
• Medicine, Ferid Murad
• Peace, John Hume
• Peace, David Trimble
• Physics, Robert B. Laughlin
• Physics, Horst L. Störmer
• Physics, Daniel C. Tsui

1997 - Chemistry, Paul D. Boyer
• Chemistry, Jens C. Skou
• Chemistry, John E. Walker
• Economics, Robert C. Merton
• Economics, Myron S. Scholes
• Literature, Dario Fo
• Medicine, Stanley B. Prusiner
• Peace, International Campaign to Ban Landmines
• Peace, Jody Williams
• Physics, Steven Chu
• Physics, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji
• Physics, William D. Phillips

1996 - Chemistry, Robert F. Curl Jr.
• Chemistry, Sir Harold Kroto
• Chemistry, Richard E. Smalley
• Economics, James A. Mirrlees
• Economics, William Vickrey
• Literature, Wislawa Szymborska
• Medicine, Peter C. Doherty
• Medicine, Rolf M. Zinkernagel
• Peace, Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo
• Peace, José Ramos-Horta
• Physics, David M. Lee
• Physics, Douglas D. Osheroff
• Physics, Robert C. Richardson

1995 - Chemistry, Paul J. Crutzen
• Chemistry, Mario J. Molina
• Chemistry, F. Sherwood Rowland
• Economics, Robert E. Lucas Jr.
• Literature, Seamus Heaney
• Medicine, Edward B. Lewis
• Medicine, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
• Medicine, Eric F. Wieschaus
• Peace, Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
• Peace, Joseph Rotblat
• Physics, Martin L. Perl
• Physics, Frederick Reines

1994 - Chemistry, George A. Olah
• Economics, John C. Harsanyi
• Economics, John F. Nash Jr.
• Economics, Reinhard Selten
• Literature, Kenzaburo Oe
• Medicine, Alfred G. Gilman
• Medicine, Martin Rodbell
• Peace, Yasser Arafat
• Peace, Shimon Peres
• Peace, Yitzhak Rabin
• Physics, Bertram N. Brockhouse
• Physics, Clifford G. Shull

1993 - Chemistry, Kary B. Mullis
• Chemistry, Michael Smith
• Economics, Robert W. Fogel
• Economics, Douglass C. North
• Literature, Toni Morrison
• Medicine, Richard J. Roberts
• Medicine, Phillip A. Sharp
• Peace, F.W. de Klerk
• Peace, Nelson Mandela
• Physics, Russell A. Hulse
• Physics, Joseph H. Taylor Jr.

1992 - Chemistry, Rudolph A. Marcus
• Economics, Gary S. Becker
• Literature, Derek Walcott
• Medicine, Edmond H. Fischer
• Medicine, Edwin G. Krebs
• Peace, Rigoberta Menchú Tum
• Physics, Georges Charpak

1991 - Chemistry, Richard R. Ernst
• Economics, Ronald H. Coase
• Literature, Nadine Gordimer
• Medicine, Erwin Neher
• Medicine, Bert Sakmann
• Peace, Aung San Suu Kyi
• Physics, Pierre-Gilles de Gennes

1990 - Chemistry, Elias James Corey
• Economics, Harry M. Markowitz
• Economics, Merton H. Miller
• Economics, William F. Sharpe
• Literature, Octavio Paz
• Medicine, Joseph E. Murray
• Medicine, E. Donnall Thomas
• Peace, Mikhail Gorbachev
• Physics, Jerome I. Friedman
• Physics, Henry W. Kendall
• Physics, Richard E. Taylor

1989 - Chemistry, Sidney Altman
• Chemistry, Thomas R. Cech
• Economics, Trygve Haavelmo
• Literature, Camilo José Cela
• Medicine, J. Michael Bishop
• Medicine, Harold E. Varmus
• Peace, The 14th Dalai Lama
• Physics, Hans G. Dehmelt
• Physics, Wolfgang Paul
• Physics, Norman F. Ramsey

1988 - Chemistry, Johann Deisenhofer
• Chemistry, Robert Huber
• Chemistry, Hartmut Michel
• Economics, Maurice Allais
• Literature, Naguib Mahfouz
• Medicine, Sir James W. Black
• Medicine, Gertrude B. Elion
• Medicine, George H. Hitchings
• Peace, United Nations Peacekeeping Forces
• Physics, Leon M. Lederman
• Physics, Melvin Schwartz
• Physics, Jack Steinberger

1987 - Chemistry, Donald J. Cram
• Chemistry, Jean-Marie Lehn
• Chemistry, Charles J. Pedersen
• Economics, Robert M. Solow
• Literature, Joseph Brodsky
• Medicine, Susumu Tonegawa
• Peace, Oscar Arias Sánchez
• Physics, J. Georg Bednorz
• Physics, K. Alex Müller

1986 - Chemistry, Dudley R. Herschbach
• Chemistry, Yuan T. Lee
• Chemistry, John C. Polanyi
• Economics, James M. Buchanan Jr.
• Literature, Wole Soyinka
• Medicine, Stanley Cohen
• Medicine, Rita Levi-Montalcini
• Peace, Elie Wiesel
• Physics, Gerd Binnig
• Physics, Heinrich Rohrer
• Physics, Ernst Ruska

1985 - Chemistry, Herbert A. Hauptman
• Chemistry, Jerome Karle
• Economics, Franco Modigliani
• Literature, Claude Simon
• Medicine, Michael S. Brown
• Medicine, Joseph L. Goldstein
• Peace, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War
• Physics, Klaus von Klitzing

1984 - Chemistry, Bruce Merrifield
• Economics, Richard Stone
• Literature, Jaroslav Seifert
• Medicine, Niels K. Jerne
• Medicine, Georges J.F. Köhler
• Medicine, César Milstein
• Peace, Desmond Tutu
• Physics, Carlo Rubbia
• Physics, Simon van der Meer

1983 - Chemistry, Henry Taube
• Economics, Gerard Debreu
• Literature, William Golding
• Medicine, Barbara McClintock
• Peace, Lech Walesa
• Physics, Subramanyan Chandrasekhar
• Physics, William A. Fowler

1982 - Chemistry, Aaron Klug
• Economics, George J. Stigler
• Literature, Gabriel García Márquez
• Medicine, Sune K. Bergström
• Medicine, Bengt I. Samuelsson
• Medicine, John R. Vane
• Peace, Alfonso García Robles
• Peace, Alva Myrdal
• Physics, Kenneth G. Wilson

1981 - Chemistry, Kenichi Fukui
• Chemistry, Roald Hoffmann
• Economics, James Tobin
• Literature, Elias Canetti
• Medicine, David H. Hubel
• Medicine, Roger W. Sperry
• Medicine, Torsten N. Wiesel
• Peace, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
• Physics, Nicolaas Bloembergen
• Physics, Arthur L. Schawlow
• Physics, Kai M. Siegbahn

1980 - Chemistry, Paul Berg
• Chemistry, Walter Gilbert
• Chemistry, Frederick Sanger
• Economics, Lawrence R. Klein
• Literature, Czeslaw Milosz
• Medicine, Baruj Benacerraf
• Medicine, Jean Dausset
• Medicine, George D. Snell
• Peace, Adolfo Pérez Esquivel
• Physics, James Cronin
• Physics, Val Fitch

1979 - Chemistry, Herbert C. Brown
• Chemistry, Georg Wittig
• Economics, Sir Arthur Lewis
• Economics, Theodore W. Schultz
• Literature, Odysseus Elytis
• Medicine, Allan M. Cormack
• Medicine, Godfrey N. Hounsfield
• Peace, Mother Teresa
• Physics, Sheldon Glashow
• Physics, Abdus Salam
• Physics, Steven Weinberg

1978 - Chemistry, Peter Mitchell
• Economics, Herbert A. Simon
• Literature, Isaac Bashevis Singer
• Medicine, Werner Arber
• Medicine, Daniel Nathans
• Medicine, Hamilton O. Smith
• Peace, Anwar al-Sadat
• Peace, Menachem Begin
• Physics, Pyotr Kapitsa
• Physics, Arno Penzias
• Physics, Robert Woodrow Wilson

1977 - Chemistry, Ilya Prigogine
• Economics, James E. Meade
• Economics, Bertil Ohlin
• Literature, Vicente Aleixandre
• Medicine, Roger Guillemin
• Medicine, Andrew V. Schally
• Medicine, Rosalyn Yalow
• Peace, Amnesty International
• Physics, Philip W. Anderson
• Physics, Sir Nevill F. Mott
• Physics, John H. van Vleck

1976 - Chemistry, William Lipscomb
• Economics, Milton Friedman
• Literature, Saul Bellow
• Medicine, Baruch S. Blumberg
• Medicine, D. Carleton Gajdusek
• Peace, Mairead Corrigan
• Peace, Betty Williams
• Physics, Burton Richter
• Physics, Samuel C.C. Ting

1975 - Chemistry, John Cornforth
• Chemistry, Vladimir Prelog
• Economics, Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich
• Economics, Tjalling C. Koopmans
• Literature, Eugenio Montale
• Medicine, David Baltimore
• Medicine, Renato Dulbecco
• Medicine, Howard M. Temin
• Peace, Andrei Sakharov
• Physics, Aage N. Bohr
• Physics, Ben R. Mottelson
• Physics, James Rainwater

1974 - Chemistry, Paul J. Flory
• Economics, Gunnar Myrdal
• Economics, Friedrich August von Hayek
• Literature, Eyvind Johnson
• Literature, Harry Martinson
• Medicine, Albert Claude
• Medicine, Christian de Duve
• Medicine, George E. Palade
• Peace, Seán MacBride
• Peace, Eisaku Sato
• Physics, Antony Hewish
• Physics, Martin Ryle

1973 - Chemistry, Ernst Otto Fischer
• Chemistry, Geoffrey Wilkinson
• Economics, Wassily Leontief
• Literature, Patrick White
• Medicine, Konrad Lorenz
• Medicine, Nikolaas Tinbergen
• Medicine, Karl von Frisch
• Peace, Le Duc Tho
• Peace, Henry Kissinger
• Physics, Leo Esaki
• Physics, Ivar Giaever
• Physics, Brian D. Josephson

1972 - Chemistry, Christian Anfinsen
• Chemistry, Stanford Moore
• Chemistry, William H. Stein
• Economics, Kenneth J. Arrow
• Economics, John R. Hicks
• Literature, Heinrich Böll
• Medicine, Gerald M. Edelman
• Medicine, Rodney R. Porter
• Peace, No Prize was Awarded
• Physics, John Bardeen
• Physics, Leon N. Cooper
• Physics, Robert Schrieffer

1971 - Chemistry, Gerhard Herzberg
• Economics, Simon Kuznets
• Literature, Pablo Neruda
• Medicine, Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.
• Peace, Willy Brandt
• Physics, Dennis Gabor

1970 - Chemistry, Luis Leloir
• Economics, Paul A. Samuelson
• Literature, Alexandr Solzhenitsyn
• Medicine, Julius Axelrod
• Medicine, Sir Bernard Katz
• Medicine, Ulf von Euler
• Peace, Norman Borlaug
• Physics, Hannes Alfvén
• Physics, Louis Néel

1969 - Chemistry, Derek Barton
• Chemistry, Odd Hassel
• Economics, Ragnar Frisch
• Economics, Jan Tinbergen
• Literature, Samuel Beckett
• Medicine, Max Delbrück
• Medicine, Alfred D. Hershey
• Medicine, Salvador E. Luria
• Peace, International Labour Organization
• Physics, Murray Gell-Mann

1968 - Chemistry, Lars Onsager
• Literature, Yasunari Kawabata
• Medicine, Robert W. Holley
• Medicine, H. Gobind Khorana
• Medicine, Marshall W. Nirenberg
• Peace, René Cassin
• Physics, Luis Alvarez

1967 - Chemistry, Manfred Eigen
• Chemistry, Ronald G.W. Norrish
• Chemistry, George Porter
• Literature, Miguel Angel Asturias
• Medicine, Ragnar Granit
• Medicine, Haldan K. Hartline
• Medicine, George Wald
• Peace, No Prize was Awarded
• Physics, Hans Bethe

1966 - Chemistry, Robert S. Mulliken
• Literature, Shmuel Agnon
• Literature, Nelly Sachs
• Medicine, Charles B. Huggins
• Medicine, Peyton Rous
• Peace, No Prize was Awarded
• Physics, Alfred Kastler

1965 - Chemistry, Robert B. Woodward
• Literature, Mikhail Sholokhov
• Medicine, François Jacob
• Medicine, André Lwoff
• Medicine, Jacques Monod
• Peace, United Nations Children's Fund
• Physics, Richard P. Feynman
• Physics, Julian Schwinger
• Physics, Sin-Itiro Tomonaga

1964 - Chemistry, Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin
• Literature, Jean-Paul Sartre
• Medicine, Konrad Bloch
• Medicine, Feodor Lynen
• Peace, Martin Luther King Jr.
• Physics, Nicolay G. Basov
• Physics, Aleksandr M. Prokhorov
• Physics, Charles H. Townes

1963 - Chemistry, Giulio Natta
• Chemistry, Karl Ziegler
• Literature, Giorgos Seferis
• Medicine, Sir John Eccles
• Medicine, Alan L. Hodgkin
• Medicine, Andrew F. Huxley
• Peace, International Committee of the Red Cross
• Peace, League of Red Cross Societies
• Physics, Maria Goeppert-Mayer
• Physics, J. Hans D. Jensen
• Physics, Eugene Wigner

1962 - Chemistry, John C. Kendrew
• Chemistry, Max F. Perutz
• Literature, John Steinbeck
• Medicine, Francis Crick
• Medicine, James Watson
• Medicine, Maurice Wilkins
• Peace, Linus Pauling
• Physics, Lev Landau

1961 - Chemistry, Melvin Calvin
• Literature, Ivo Andric
• Medicine, Georg von Békésy
• Peace, Dag Hammarskjöld
• Physics, Robert Hofstadter
• Physics, Rudolf Mössbauer

1960 - Chemistry, Willard F. Libby
• Literature, Saint-John Perse
• Medicine, Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet
• Medicine, Peter Medawar
• Peace, Albert Lutuli
• Physics, Donald A. Glaser

1959 - Chemistry, Jaroslav Heyrovsky
• Literature, Salvatore Quasimodo
• Medicine, Arthur Kornberg
• Medicine, Severo Ochoa
• Peace, Philip Noel-Baker
• Physics, Owen Chamberlain
• Physics, Emilio Segrè

1958 - Chemistry, Frederick Sanger
• Literature, Boris Pasternak
• Medicine, George Beadle
• Medicine, Joshua Lederberg
• Medicine, Edward Tatum
• Peace, Georges Pire
• Physics, Pavel A. Cherenkov
• Physics, Il´ja M. Frank
• Physics, Igor Y. Tamm

1957 - Chemistry, Lord Todd
• Literature, Albert Camus
• Medicine, Daniel Bovet
• Peace, Lester Bowles Pearson
• Physics, Tsung-Dao Lee
• Physics, Chen Ning Yang

1956 - Chemistry, Sir Cyril Hinshelwood
• Chemistry, Nikolay Semenov
• Literature, Juan Ramón Jiménez
• Medicine, André F. Cournand
• Medicine, Werner Forssmann
• Medicine, Dickinson W. Richards
• Peace, No Prize was Awarded
• Physics, John Bardeen
• Physics, Walter H. Brattain
• Physics, William B. Shockley

1955 - Chemistry, Vincent du Vigneaud
• Literature, Halldór Laxness
• Medicine, Hugo Theorell
• Peace, No Prize was Awarded
• Physics, Polykarp Kusch
• Physics, Willis E. Lamb

1954 - Chemistry, Linus Pauling
• Literature, Ernest Hemingway
• Medicine, John F. Enders
• Medicine, Frederick C. Robbins
• Medicine, Thomas H. Weller
• Peace, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
• Physics, Max Born
• Physics, Walther Bothe

1953 - Chemistry, Hermann Staudinger
• Literature, Winston Churchill
• Medicine, Hans Krebs
• Medicine, Fritz Lipmann
• Peace, George C. Marshall
• Physics, Frits Zernike

1952 - Chemistry, Archer J.P. Martin
• Chemistry, Richard L.M. Synge
• Literature, François Mauriac
• Medicine, Selman A. Waksman
• Peace, Albert Schweitzer
• Physics, Felix Bloch
• Physics, E. M. Purcell

1951 - Chemistry, Edwin M. McMillan
• Chemistry, Glenn T. Seaborg
• Literature, Pär Lagerkvist
• Medicine, Max Theiler
• Peace, Léon Jouhaux
• Physics, John Cockcroft
• Physics, Ernest T.S. Walton

1950 - Chemistry, Kurt Alder
• Chemistry, Otto Diels
• Literature, Bertrand Russell
• Medicine, Philip S. Hench
• Medicine, Edward C. Kendall
• Medicine, Tadeus Reichstein
• Peace, Ralph Bunche
• Physics, Cecil Powell

1949 - Chemistry, William F. Giauque
• Literature, William Faulkner
• Medicine, Walter Hess
• Medicine, Egas Moniz
• Peace, Lord Boyd Orr
• Physics, Hideki Yukawa

1948 - Chemistry, Arne Tiselius
• Literature, T.S. Eliot
• Medicine, Paul Müller
• Peace, No Prize was Awarded
• Physics, Patrick M.S. Blackett

1947 - Chemistry, Sir Robert Robinson
• Literature, André Gide
• Medicine, Carl Cori
• Medicine, Gerty Cori
• Medicine, Bernardo Houssay
• Peace, Friends Service Council
• Peace, American Friends Service Committee
• Physics, Edward V. Appleton

1946 - Chemistry, John H. Northrop
• Chemistry, Wendell M. Stanley
• Chemistry, James B. Sumner
• Literature, Hermann Hesse
• Medicine, Hermann J. Muller
• Peace, Emily Greene Balch
• Peace, John R. Mott
• Physics, Percy W. Bridgman

1945 - Chemistry, Artturi Virtanen
• Literature, Gabriela Mistral
• Medicine, Ernst B. Chain
• Medicine, Sir Alexander Fleming
• Medicine, Sir Howard Florey
• Peace, Cordell Hull
• Physics, Wolfgang Pauli

1944 - Chemistry, Otto Hahn
• Literature, Johannes V. Jensen
• Medicine, Joseph Erlanger
• Medicine, Herbert S. Gasser
• Peace, International Committee of the Red Cross
• Physics, Isidor Isaac Rabi

1943 - Chemistry, George de Hevesy
• Literature, No Prize was Awarded
• Medicine, Henrik Dam
• Medicine, Edward A. Doisy
• Peace, No Prize was Awarded
• Physics, Otto Stern

1942 - Chemistry, No Prize was Awarded
• Literature, No Prize was Awarded
• Medicine, No Prize was Awarded
• Peace, No Prize was Awarded
• Physics, No Prize was Awarded

1941 - Chemistry, No Prize was Awarded
• Literature, No Prize was Awarded
• Medicine, No Prize was Awarded
• Peace, No Prize was Awarded
• Physics, No Prize was Awarded

1940 - Chemistry, No Prize was Awarded
• Literature, No Prize was Awarded
• Medicine, No Prize was Awarded
• Peace, No Prize was Awarded
• Physics, No Prize was Awarded

1939 - Chemistry, Adolf Butenandt
• Chemistry, Leopold Ruzicka
• Literature, Frans Eemil Sillanpää
• Medicine, Gerhard Domagk
• Peace, No Prize was Awarded
• Physics, Ernest Lawrence

1938 - Chemistry, Richard Kuhn
• Literature, Pearl Buck
• Medicine, Corneille Heymans
• Peace, Nansen International Office for Refugees
• Physics, Enrico Fermi

1937 - Chemistry, Norman Haworth
• Chemistry, Paul Karrer
• Literature, Roger Martin du Gard
• Medicine, Albert Szent-Györgyi
• Peace, Robert Cecil
• Physics, Clinton Davisson
• Physics, George Paget Thomson

1936 - Chemistry, Peter Debye
• Literature, Eugene O'Neill
• Medicine, Sir Henry Dale
• Medicine, Otto Loewi
• Peace, Carlos Saavedra Lamas
• Physics, Carl D. Anderson
• Physics, Victor F. Hess

1935 - Chemistry, Frédéric Joliot
• Chemistry, Irène Joliot-Curie
• Literature, No Prize was Awarded
• Medicine, Hans Spemann
• Peace, Carl von Ossietzky
• Physics, James Chadwick

1934 - Chemistry, Harold C. Urey
• Literature, Luigi Pirandello
• Medicine, George R. Minot
• Medicine, William P. Murphy
• Medicine, George H. Whipple
• Peace, Arthur Henderson
• Physics, No Prize was Awarded

1933 - Chemistry, No Prize was Awarded
• Literature, Ivan Bunin
• Medicine, Thomas H. Morgan
• Peace, Sir Norman Angell
• Physics, Paul A.M. Dirac
• Physics, Erwin Schrödinger

1932 - Chemistry, Irving Langmuir
• Literature, John Galsworthy
• Medicine, Edgar Adrian
• Medicine, Sir Charles Sherrington
• Peace, No Prize was Awarded
• Physics, Werner Heisenberg

1931 - Chemistry, Friedrich Bergius
• Chemistry, Carl Bosch
• Literature, Erik Axel Karlfeldt
• Medicine, Otto Warburg
• Peace, Jane Addams
• Peace, Nicholas Murray Butler
• Physics, No Prize was Awarded

1930 - Chemistry, Hans Fischer
• Literature, Sinclair Lewis
• Medicine, Karl Landsteiner
• Peace, Nathan Söderblom
• Physics, Sir Venkata Raman

1929 - Chemistry, Arthur Harden
• Chemistry, Hans von Euler-Chelpin
• Literature, Thomas Mann
• Medicine, Christiaan Eijkman
• Medicine, Sir Frederick Hopkins
• Peace, Frank B. Kellogg
• Physics, Louis de Broglie

1928 - Chemistry, Adolf Windaus
• Literature, Sigrid Undset
• Medicine, Charles Nicolle
• Peace, No Prize was Awarded
• Physics, Owen Willans Richardson

1927 - Chemistry, Heinrich Wieland
• Literature, Henri Bergson
• Medicine, Julius Wagner-Jauregg
• Peace, Ferdinand Buisson
• Peace, Ludwig Quidde
• Physics, Arthur H. Compton
• Physics, C.T.R. Wilson

1926 - Chemistry, The Svedberg
• Literature, Grazia Deledda
• Medicine, Johannes Fibiger
• Peace, Aristide Briand
• Peace, Gustav Stresemann
• Physics, Jean Baptiste Perrin

1925 - Chemistry, Richard Zsigmondy
• Literature, George Bernard Shaw
• Medicine, No Prize was Awarded
• Peace, Sir Austen Chamberlain
• Peace, Charles G. Dawes
• Physics, James Franck
• Physics, Gustav Hertz

1924 - Chemistry, No Prize was Awarded
• Literature, Wladyslaw Reymont
• Medicine, Willem Einthoven
• Peace, No Prize was Awarded
• Physics, Manne Siegbahn

1923 - Chemistry, Fritz Pregl
• Literature, William Butler Yeats
• Medicine, Frederick G. Banting
• Medicine, John Macleod
• Peace, No Prize was Awarded
• Physics, Robert A. Millikan

1922 - Chemistry, Francis W. Aston
• Literature, Jacinto Benavente
• Medicine, Archibald V. Hill
• Medicine, Otto Meyerhof
• Peace, Fridtjof Nansen
• Physics, Niels Bohr

1921 - Chemistry, Frederick Soddy
• Literature, Anatole France
• Medicine, No Prize was Awarded
• Peace, Hjalmar Branting
• Peace, Christian Lange
• Physics, Albert Einstein

1920 - Chemistry, Walther Nernst
• Literature, Knut Hamsun
• Medicine, August Krogh
• Peace, Léon Bourgeois
• Physics, Charles Edouard Guillaume

1919 - Chemistry, No Prize was Awarded
• Literature, Carl Spitteler
• Medicine, Jules Bordet
• Peace, Woodrow Wilson
• Physics, Johannes Stark

1918 - Chemistry, Fritz Haber
• Literature, No Prize was Awarded
• Medicine, No Prize was Awarded
• Peace, No Prize was Awarded
• Physics, Max Planck

1917 - Chemistry, No Prize was Awarded
• Literature, Karl Gjellerup
• Literature, Henrik Pontoppidan
• Medicine, No Prize was Awarded
• Peace, International Committee of the Red Cross
• Physics, Charles Glover Barkla

1916 - Chemistry, No Prize was Awarded
• Literature, Verner von Heidenstam
• Medicine, No Prize was Awarded
• Peace, No Prize was Awarded
• Physics, No Prize was Awarded

1915 - Chemistry, Richard Willstätter
• Literature, Romain Rolland
• Medicine, No Prize was Awarded
• Peace, No Prize was Awarded
• Physics, William Bragg
• Physics, Lawrence Bragg

1914 - Chemistry, Theodore W. Richards
• Literature, No Prize was Awarded
• Medicine, Robert Bárány
• Peace, No Prize was Awarded
• Physics, Max von Laue

1913 - Chemistry, Alfred Werner
• Literature, Rabindranath Tagore
• Medicine, Charles Richet
• Peace, Henri La Fontaine
• Physics, Heike Kamerlingh Onnes

1912 - Chemistry, Victor Grignard
• Chemistry, Paul Sabatier
• Literature, Gerhart Hauptmann
• Medicine, Alexis Carrel
• Peace, Elihu Root
• Physics, Gustaf Dalén

1911 - Chemistry, Marie Curie
• Literature, Maurice Maeterlinck
• Medicine, Allvar Gullstrand
• Peace, Tobias Asser
• Peace, Alfred Fried
• Physics, Wilhelm Wien

1910 - Chemistry, Otto Wallach
• Literature, Paul Heyse
• Medicine, Albrecht Kossel
• Peace, Permanent International Peace Bureau
• Physics, Johannes Diderik van der Waals

1909 - Chemistry, Wilhelm Ostwald
• Literature, Selma Lagerlöf
• Medicine, Theodor Kocher
• Peace, Auguste Beernaert
• Peace, Paul Henri d'Estournelles de Constant
• Physics, Ferdinand Braun
• Physics, Guglielmo Marconi

1908 - Chemistry, Ernest Rutherford
• Literature, Rudolf Eucken
• Medicine, Paul Ehrlich
• Medicine, Ilya Mechnikov
• Peace, Klas Pontus Arnoldson
• Peace, Fredrik Bajer
• Physics, Gabriel Lippmann

1907 - Chemistry, Eduard Buchner
• Literature, Rudyard Kipling
• Medicine, Alphonse Laveran
• Peace, Ernesto Teodoro Moneta
• Peace, Louis Renault
• Physics, Albert A. Michelson

1906 - Chemistry, Henri Moissan
• Literature, Giosuè Carducci
• Medicine, Camillo Golgi
• Medicine, Santiago Ramón y Cajal
• Peace, Theodore Roosevelt
• Physics, J.J. Thomson

1905 - Chemistry, Adolf von Baeyer
Literature, Henryk Sienkiewicz
• Medicine, Robert Koch
• Peace, Bertha von Suttner
• Physics, Philipp Lenard

1904 - Chemistry, Sir William Ramsay
• Literature, José Echegaray
• Literature, Frédéric Mistral
• Medicine, Ivan Pavlov
• Peace, Institute of International Law
• Physics, Lord Rayleigh

1903 - Chemistry, Svante Arrhenius
• Literature, Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson
• Medicine, Niels Ryberg Finsen
• Peace, Randal Cremer
• Physics, Henri Becquerel
• Physics, Pierre Curie
• Physics, Marie Curie

1902 - Chemistry, Emil Fischer
• Literature, Theodor Mommsen
• Medicine, Ronald Ross
• Peace, Élie Ducommun
• Peace, Albert Gobat
• Physics, Hendrik A. Lorentz
• Physics, Pieter Zeeman

1901 - Chemistry, Jacobus H. van 't Hoff
• Literature, Sully Prudhomme
• Medicine, Emil von Behring
• Peace, Henry Dunant
• Peace, Frédéric Passy
• Physics, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen

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Posted by Josephsaia