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Motto: "I thu chhiarin a siam che"

Friday, October 4, 2013

U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon (1913 – 1994)


“A man is not finished when he is defeated. He is finished when he quits.”
   
By: Josephsaia
 
A chanchin tlangpui:
 
Richard Nixon  hi America President nihna atanga mahnia inhnukdawk awm chhun a nih avangin America President-te zingah mite hriat a hlawh bik hle a. Watergate Scandal avangin kum 1974 khan hmingchhe takin a Office a chhuahsan a, he a thiltih sual lian tak hi America history-a thil mak tak a tling reng a ni.
 
Nixon-a hi Yorba Linda, California-a piang a ni a, kum 1934 khan Whittier College-ah a graduate a, kum 1937 khan Duke University School of Law atangin Dan lam degree a la bawk a. Degree a lak fel hnu chuan Dan lam practice turin California-ah a haw leh ta a.
 
Kum 1942 khan a nupui Pat Nixon nen Washington-ah Federal Government hna thawk turin an insawn a, Khawvel Indopui II (1939-45)-a Japanin Philippine thlirkara US lawng chawlhna hmunpui Pearl Harbours a rawn boom lai khan U.S. Navy-ah a lut a, Pacific Indonaah Operation officer hna a chelh a, indo a zawh fel meuh chuan U.S. Marine sipai Commander (Leutenant Commander) a kai hman daih a ni. Indopui a zawh fel hnu chuan political lamah a zuanglut nghal a, politic lama a zuanluh dan pawh hi mak danglam tak a ni. California district Republican chuan Congress member ni tura candidate tur chanchinbuah advertisement an chhuah a. Nixon chuan a dil a, sipai a tan laia a record-te an han en chuan Nixon chu an mi duhzawng leh lungdum zawng tak a ni a. Chutichuan kum 1946 atang khan U.S. House of Representatives a lo ni ta a. Kum 1948 khan Congress member atan thlan a ni leh a, kum 1950 khan U.S. Senator-a thlantlin a ni bawk a, heti lai hian Nixson-a chu kum 37 mi chauh a la ni.
 
Communist sawrkarna a do nasat em avangin America politic khawvelah mite hriat a hlawh hle a, kum 1952 US inthlanpui khan President Dwight D. Eisenhower-an Vice Presidential running mate atan a thlang hial a ni. Kum 8 zet mai Vice President hna a chelh hnuin kum 1960 khan Democratic Party candidate John F. Kennedy-a khingin President nih a chuh a, vote tlemte in John F. Kennedy chu a hneh ta lova. Kum 1962 khan California Governor atan a in candidate leh a, chutah pawh chuan a tling leh ta lova, mi tam tak chuan politic khawvelah Nixon-a hun a liam ta niin an ngai hial a ni. Amaherawhchu kum 1968 khan President nih a chuh leh a, chutah zet chuan US President 37-na atana thlan tlin a ni ta a, politics khawvelah Nixon hming chu a rawn lar chho ta hle a. President nihna a chelh chhung (1969-1974)-a a thiltih ropui ber chu China nena indawrtawnna (diplomatic) tha tak a siam kha a ni a, Soviet Union nena Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty an siam leh kum 1973-a Vietnam Indona atanga US sipaite a hruaikir leh kha a thiltih ropui berte zinga chhiar tel a ni bawk.

 

President nihna a chelh chhungin cancer natna nasa takin a do va, hnathawhtute hlawh leh thil man (wage and price control) siamthain hriselna leh khawtlang thil (healthcare leh welfare)-ah pawh siamtharlehna hna nasa takin a thawk bawk a ni. Vansang inkahchhohna lamah hma a hruai a, Apollo 11 atanga bul tanin Neil Armstrong leh a thianpa Buzz Aldrin te chu thla leilungah July 20, 1969 khan an inkapkai a, van chhung sang boruak zirchianna chu Shuttle Mission tiin hming a thlak a, heng zawng zawng hi President nihna a chelh chhunga a thiltih chhinchhiahthlak tak takte an ni.
 
President term hnihnaah erawh harsatna leh buaina tam tak a tawk a, Vietnam Indona chungchangah te, Middle East ram nena an intihthiamlohna chungchangah te leh America ram hmingchhiahna rapthlak ber Watergate Scandal chungchangah te Nixon-a hming a hliau mai ni lovin a Office hial a chhuahsan a, amaherawhchu vanneihthlak takin amah rawn thlaktu President Gerald Ford-a chuan a ngaidam hmiah mai a. President nihna a bansan hnu chuan lehkhabu bu kua lai ziakin  ram hrang hrangahte a zin kual a, April 18, 1994 khan Nixon-a chu kum 81 mi niin he khawvel a chhuahsan ta a.
 
Pian leh Murna:
 
Richard Milhous Nixon hi January 9, 1913 khan Yorba Linda, California State-ah a piang a, California hmun thei huana a pa in sak ngeia piang a ni. Unau panga zinga a pahnihna a ni a, an unau mipa pali chuan Lal hming an pu vek a. Richard tih hming pawh hi England lal Richard the Lionheart tih hming chawia sak a ni. A naupan lam chuan Dick tiin an ko thin a, hei hming hi a naupang lai zawnga an kohna hming a ni.
 
An naupan lai chuan chhungkaw rethei tak an ni a, harsatna leh manganna tam tak kara seilian a nih avangin President Eisenhower-a thukhawchang hawhin, “Mi rethei tak kan ni a, mahse retheihna in a rahchhuah ropuina erawh kan hre pha lo a ni,” tih hi a sawi fo thin. Kum 1922 khan ran vulhna lamah an chhungkua an tlachhia a, chumi hnu chuan Whittier, California lamah an chhungkuain an pem ta a. An chenna hmun chheh velah chuan Quakers an tih sakhaw lama mi kulmuk tak tak an awm nual a, chung mite zarah chuan a pa Francis Anthony Nixon chuan Grocery store leh Gas Station a hawng a, an unau zain a pa hnathawh an pui thin. A nu Hannh Milhous Nixon pawh chhungkaw zahawm tak leh Quaker an tih sakhaw kulmuk tak chhungkua atanga seilian a ni a, mi fing leh mi tumruh tak mi a ni bawk.
 
Zirna:
 
A naupan laiin East Whittier Elementary School-ah a kal a, pawl 8 a nihin sikul naupang hotu atan an thlang a. Fullerton Union High School a kal lai phei chuan lehkha a thiam theiin debate-na apiangah pakhatna a ni ziah a, miten a hming an hre lar hle a ni. Fullerton Union High School-ah kumkhat zet nitin bus darkar khat chuangin a kal a, a changin Fullerton-a a pi hnenah a riak mai thin bawk. An zirtirtu lu ber H. Lynn Sheller in, “Tawng hi ti ti a ni a, chuvang chuan mipui hmaah vin takin thu sawi lovin anmahni biak ula, ti ti pui thin rawh u,” tih a sawi chu a hre reng a, chu tawngkam hlu tak chu a hlawhtlinna thuruk niin Dick-a chuan a sawi thin a ni.

High sikul kumhnihna chu Whittier High Sikulah bawk a chhunzawm leh a, sikul naupang zinga mi biangbiak thiam leh mipui hmaa thusawi leh thu inhnial (debate) thiam tak a nih avangin Student Body President atana thlan nghal a ni. High sikul a kal lai chuan zing 4-ah a tho thin a, thlaihnah zawrh tur leiin an chhungkaw motor nen Los Angeles bazarah a kal thin a. An thlaihnah zawrh tur zawng zawng a phochhuah vek hnu chuan a zirna sikul lam panin hmanhmawh takin a tlan a, chuti chung chuan a zirlai subject hrang hrangah pakhatna a ni ziah a, high sikul kumthumnaah chuan sikul naupang 207 zinga a thiam thei ber 3-na niin a graduate ta a. Kum 1934 khan Whittier College atangin a graduate a, chumi hnu chuan Duke University School of Law-ah kum 3 a zir leh a, chutah pawh chuan Duke Student Bar Council president atana thlan a ni leh a, Duke University School of University atangin kum 1937 khan Dan lam degree (Law Degree) a sualchhuak ta a.
 
Nupui fanaute
 
Duke University-a a zir zawh hnu chuan Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) zawm tumin dilna a thehlut a, mahse sawrkarin budget a cut avangin a dilna chu pawmsak a ni lo. Chumi hnu chuan a pianna hmun Whittier, California-ah bawk chuan Dan lam chu a taka practice turin a kir leh a, chutah chuan law firm pakhat Wingert and Bewley a va zawm ta a. Ukil hna thawk pahin Petroleum company hrang hrangah ukil hna a thawk bawk a. Kum 1938 khan La Habra, California-ah ama pualin Wingert and Bewley law firm branch pakhat a hawng a. Kum 1940 khan high sikul zirtirtu Thelma Catherine “Pat” Ryan nen lemchanna hmunah an inchhar a, amaherawhchu Catherine lungdum tak a nih loh avangin Nixon-an nupui atana a sawmna chu a hnawl a. Kum hnih meuh an inzui hnu chuan Catherine pawhin Nixon-a chu a hmangaihin a duh ve ta hle a, chutichuan June 21, 1940 khan an innei ta a. Mexico lama honeymoon an hman hnu chuan Whittier-ah bawh kir lehin fanu pahnih Patricia leh Julie an nei a, a upa zawk Patricia (Tricia) chuan a pa President a nih laiin pasal a nei a, a nau zawk Julie pawhin President Eisenhower-a tupa, David Eisenhower a nei bawk a.
 
Lieutenant commander a ni ta
 
January 1942 khan a nupui Catherine nen Washington D.C. ah an insawn a, chutah chuan Nixon-an Office of Price Administration hna a chelh tan a. Kum 1942 August khan United States Navy-ah a lut a, October thlaa exam-ah Officers Candidate School a zir zo va. Chumi hnu chuan Iowa State-a Naval Air Station Ottumwa-ah Commander hna a chelh nghal a. Tuipui lawng sipai nih a beisei avangin South Pacific Combat Air Transport Command-ah passenger control officer-ah a tang ta a. Rei lo te chhungin Guadalcanal, Solomon Island leh Green Island-a indo thlawhna bungraw phur pawl (Combat Air Transport Command Officer in Charge) atan hlankai nghal a ni a, cargo aircraft C-47 enkawltu zinga an hotu ber a ni. A hnathawhna kawngah fel tak leh dik taka hna a thawh avangin “Meritorious and efficient performance of duty as Officer in Charge of the South Pacific Combat Air Transport Command” tih chawimawina leh hriatpuina lehkha a dawng a. Kum 1943 October 1 khan Lieutenant atan hlankai a ni nghal bawk.
 
US a kir hnu chuan California State-a Alameda Naval Air Station-ah Administrative officer nihna a chelh nghal a. January 1945 khan Bureaus of Aeronautics officer nihna chelh turin Philadelphia-ah sawn a ni a, chutah pawh chuan chawimawina lehkha dang a dawng leh a. Kum 1945, October khan Lieutenant Commander nihna a kaichho va, mahse he a nihna hi 1946 kumthar ni khan a bansan ta a ni.
 
Politic lama a zuanluh dan
 
Nixon-a politic zuanluh dan hi thil mak tak mai a ni a, politician dang zawng aiin a danglam bik a, a nuna thil chhinchhiahthlak tak a ni bawk. Kum 1945 khan California State-a District 12 inhlawmkhawm (12th Congressional District) Republican pachalho chuan an khingpui Democratic Congressman Jerry Voorhis tudawlthei tur candidate  zawngin “Committee of 100” an din a, an tum ber chu an khingpui Democratic pachal Voorhis-a tudawlthei tur mi pawimawh tak zawnchhuah a ni. Committee chuan Voorhis-a hneh thei tur candidate an hmuh mai loh avangin Whittier-a Bank of America branch manager Herman Perry-a chuan Whittier College Board of Trustees a nih laia a thian Nixon-a chu candidate atan a rawt ta a.
 
Perry-a chuan Baltimore-a cheng a thian Nixon-a hnenah chuan lehkha a thawn ta a. Politic khawvela Republican-ten an mamawhziate a hrilh hnu chuan Nixson-a pawhin chu a sawmna zahawm tak chu lawm takin a pawm a. Nixon-a pawh California-ah a phei nghal a, Committee of 100 te chuan Republican candidate atan an thlang nghal a. Kum 1946 khan a hna chelh mek Navy chu bansanin California-ah nasa takin politic campaign a bei a. A tawpah Democratic Voorhis-a chu vote 65,586 hmunin a hneh ta a, Voorhis-a chu vote 49,994 hmuin a tlawm ta a ni.
 
Senator nih tumin a campaign
 
Kum 1949 khan United States Senate-a a khingpui Democratic Senator Sheridan Downney hneh tumin November-ah an inkhing tan a. Mahse Downney-a chu California State atanga Democratic Party-in an thlantlin U.S House of Representative member Helen Gahagan Douglas-i nen an lo inbeih hrep tawh avangin kum 1950 khan a nihna a bansan ta a. Nixon-a leh Douglas-i te chu primary election-ah an tling ta a, an pahnih chuan nasa takin an inbei a, an campaign thupui ber Korean War chungchang a nih avangin vanneihthlak takin Nixon-a chuan Douglas-i chu a hneh ta a. Nixon-a Senator a nih hian kum 37 chauh a la ni a, U.S. Senator zingah chuan a naupang ber a ni.
 
Nixon-a chuan nasa takin Communist sawrkar a do va, Communist sawrkar a duhlohna leh a hmelma lian ber a nih thute chu hmuntinah a tlangaupui a. Amaherawhchu Communist pawl thlawptu a thian senator-te chu tlangnel takin a kawm thung a, a thinlung erawh chuan a hlat hle si a ni. Korea Indo lai khan Nixon-an President Harry S. Truman chu a dem nasa hle a, Alaska leh Hawaii-te pawh anmahnia independent state din turin a thlawp a ni.
 
Vice President nihna a chelh
 
Kum 1952 khan General Dwight Eisenhower-a chu President atan thlan a ni a. Vice President tur mi tha tak a neih loh avangin kum 39 mi Nixon-a chu Vice Presidential running mate atan a thlang a. Heti hun lai hian Nixon-a chuan Senator nihna term khat a chelh mek a ni.
 
Nixon-a hian politic campaign-a sum a hman chungchangah hmingchhiatna leh hekna tam tak a tawk a, mahse a chheng hmante leh a chheng hmuhchhuahte chu dan ang tlapa a hmuh a ni tih finfiah nan America mipui million 60 hmaah thu a sawi a, chu a finfiahna thu ropui tak chu Checkers Speech tiin a ko nghe nghe a. Dik lo taka sum lalut nia an puhna leh hekna chu fimkhur tak leh dik taka a finfiah theih avangin America mipuite rin a hlawhin President Eisenhower-a pawhin a vice president tern hnih atan a pawm phah ta hial a.
 
Nixon-a hian mite fak a hlawh nasa in hlawhtlinna tam tak a a hmu a. President Eisenhower-a vice president anih lai khan Cabinet Meeting leh Natioanal Security Council-ah te vawi tam tak a tel ve a, President Eisenhower-a damloh lai leh a awm loh hunah pawh amahin meeting a hruai thin a, mite hriat a hlawhin “First Modern Vice President” tiin an koh hial a ni. Kum 1953 khan ram pawn hmun hrang hrangah a zin kual a, ram dang nena inlaichinna leh sumdawntawnna tam tak a siam bawk a. Hanoi, Saigon (Vietnam) leh Indochina tia koh France colony-te a tlawh a, he a khualzinna atang hian ram pawn nena indawrtawnna (Foreign relations) pawh tam tak a hriat phah a ni.
 
President nih a chuh ve ta
 
Kum 1960 khan Massachusetts atanga U.S. Senator, Democratic Presidential nominee John F. Kennedy chu khingin President nih a chuh a. Nixon-an a tawnhriat hmanga campaign a buatsaih  mek laiin John F. Kennedy chuan Eisenhower leh Nixon-a te rorelna hian ballistic missile lamah U.S. hmasawnna an tihnufual a, Communist ramte aiin U.S. hian missile lamah hma a sawn lo zawk a ni tih thupuia hmangin a campaign thung a. John F. Kennedy nena President nihna an inchuh hi America history-a televise Presidential debate hmasa ber a ni bawk. John F. Kennedy-a chu vote thlem te (0.2 percent)-a a hneh tak loh avangin Dan lam practice turin California-ah an chhungkuain an kir leh a, chutah chuan a lehkhabu ropui tak Six Crises tih chu a publish ta a. Kum 1962 khan Democratic pachal Pat Brown-a khingin California Governor atan a in candidate leh a, chutah pawh chuan a tling leh ta lova, mi tam tak chuan politic khawvelah Nixon-a hun a liam ta niin an ngai hial a ni.
Kum 1963 khan an chhungkuain Europe khawmual an fang a, a zinna ram apiangah press conference a siam zel bawk a. America an rawn haw leh hnu chuan New York khawpuiah an chhungkuain an insawn leh ta a. New York khawpuiah chuan Law Firm ropui takah a invawmlut ve leh ta a. Democratic John F. Kennedy chu hneh theih a inrin loh avangin Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater-a chu president chuh zawk turin a beisei a. Republican Convention-ah pawh Mr. Goldwater-a tan nasa takin campaign a siam a, mahse vanduaithlak takin Senator Goldwater-a chuan Lyndon Johnson-a a hneh tak loh avangin Republican Party chu a hmingchhe hle a, mi tam tak sawisel a hlawh phah hial a. Nixon-a erawh chuan tumah a dem lova, a mawhchhiat bawk hek lo. Kum 1966 khan Republican Party chu din tha leh in campaign beihpui a thlak a, chu a hnathawh ropui tak avang chuan midterm election-ah Nixon-a hming a rawn larchho leh ta a.
 
Kum 1967 kum tawp lam khan a chhungte hnenah a tumhnihna atan America President chuh a tum thu a lo hrilh tawh a. A nupui Pat Nixon erawh chuan mipui vantlang hmaa mimal nihna leh chhungkaw dinhmun thleng pholan a tul thin avangin a hreh hle a. Amaherawhchu a pasal thil tum chu hnial lovin a thlawp ve ta mai a. Nixon-a hian Vietnam War chungchangah Democratic pawlte ngaihdan a inpersan avangin Republican party-ten awlsam taka an hneh mai chu a beisei hle a.
 
Primary Election chu state hrang hrangah beih tan a ni a. President Johnson-a pawh New Hampshire primary election-ah mite faksel a hlawh nasa em avangin president candidate nihna atang a inhnukdawk nghal a. Chuti rual rualin Democratic candidate Senator Robert F. Kennedy pawh kahhlum a nih tak avangin Nixon-a tan chuan Michigan Governor George Romney-a chu a kingpui ber tur a ni ta mai a. First ballot result a lo chhuah meuh chuan Nixon-a chu a che tha zawkah a tang a. A running mate atan Maryland Governor Spiro Agnew a thlang nghal bawk a, a ni hian chhim leh hmar zara Republican-te a huikhawm theih ngei a beisei tlat a ni. 
 
General Election a lo thleng ta a, a khingpui ber chu Vice President Hubert Humphrey-a a ni a, Nixon-a chuan, “Vietnam war-ah hnehna changin he Indona hi ka titawp ang a, Pacifica indona hmun pawh ral muang takin ka siam dawn a ni,” tih thupui hmangin nasa takin campaign a siam a. Indona duh lo avanga lungawi lo mi tam tak chuan Nixon chu an thlawp a, Nixon-a pawhin amah thlawptute chu television atangin an hnena thusawiin sualna a punlun chak dan leh chumi kawnga a hmalak dan turte chu chiang takin a hrilh a.
 
General Election-ah chuan Nixon-an Hubert Humphrey leh Independent candidate Alabama Governor George Wallace-te a khing a, vote sawma vote sarih hmuin Humphrey-a leh George Wallace-a te chu a hneh ta a. Chutichuan Nixon-a chu America President 37-na atan thlan tlin a ni ta a ni. “Hnam inthen hrangte chu ka hruaikhawm vek dawn a ni” tih thu ropui tak chu a hnehna thuchah ropui ber a ni bawk.
 
January 20, 1969 ah America President 37-na ni turin Nixon-a chuan tun hmaa politic lama a khingpui Chief Justice Earl Warren-a hmaah intiamkamna thu a chham a. A nupui First Lady Pat Nixon-i chuan a Baibul ken chu keuvin Isaia 2:4 “Tin, a ni chuan hnam tin karah ro a rel ang a, chi tam tak pawh a zilhhau vang: tin, a khandaihte chu leilehna hmawr zumahte an chher ang a, an feite chu theikung anchhumna chem khawmahte an chher ang: hnam dangin hnam dang chungah khandaih an lek tawh lo vang a, indo dan pawh an zir tawh hek lo vang.” tih a chhiar a. Nixon-a pawhin, “History in a pek theih lawmman hlu ber chu remna siamtute tih sakhming hi a ni,” tih a sawi a, he a thusawi hi ama thlanah pawh ziah lan a ni nghe nghe a.
 
Foreign policy
 
China
 
Nixon-an Office term khat a luah laiin China leh Russia nena an indawrna leh inkungkaihna nasa takin a siam tha a. President a nih hma atangin Foreign Affairs chungchang amahin a lo duang tawh a, China leh Russia-te nena an indawrnaa a sulsutu ber erawh National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger-a kha a ni. Nixon-a chuan China ram hruaitu lu ber Mao Zedong-a hnenah China ram nena indawrtawnna (diplomatic relation) tha siam a beisei thu lehkha in a lo hriattir tawh a. Chu a beiseina leh duhthusam chu tihlawhtling turin Chinese Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong-a chuan kum 1971 khan American Table Tennis Player-te chu a rama player thiam berte nen inkhel turin a sawm a, chumi hnu chuan Kissinger-a chu China hruaitu liante hmu turin a tir zui nghal bawk a. July 15, 1971 khan Beijing Television leh Radio-ah US President Nixon-an China ram a tlawh dawn tih chu khawvela puanzar a ni a, he thil thleng hi khawvela awm ngai lo leh mi zawng zawngtena an rintheihloh thil a nih avangin khawvel mipuite chuan mak an tiin US President-in China ram a tlawh dawn tih chanchin chuan khawvel a sawinghing nasa hle a ni.
 
Soviet Union
 
President Nixon-an China a thlawh hnu khan Soviet Union pawh tlawh nghal turin a inbustsaih a, chutichuan May 22, 1972 ah President leh First Lady Pat Nixon te chuan Moscow khawpuia an tlawh a. General Secretary of the Communist Party Leonid Brezhnev nen sumdawn tawnna leh ral thuam humhalh dan (SALT) sawihovin khawvela missile ralthuam a pun zel loh nana missile ralthuam siamchhuah tiam chin siam (Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty) an rawtchhuak ta a. Chu an inremna chu “Thlamuang taka khawsakhona hun bi thar” tiin hming an puangzar a, Cold War laia Moscow rorelna sang ber Krimlin-ah ruai ropui tak an buatsaih hial a ni.
 
Vietnam Indona
 
President nihna a chelh atangin Vietnam Indona hmunah kar tin America sipai 300 chuang an thi avangin America ram mipuite chuan Vietnam Indona chu an duh lo va, America khawpui hmun tam takah kawngzawhin mipui an nuar a. Chubakah thil man sang chho ta lutuk chuan buaina a tipunlun a, Nixon-a pawhin buaina tam tak a hmachhawn nghal a ni.
 
Vietnam indona chungchangah President Lyndon Johnson nen an ngaihdan a inpersan a, Nixon-a chuan Vietnam indonaah hnehna an chang thei dawn lo tih a hriat avangin America sipaite chu a rang thei ang bera hruaikir turin a ruahman a, amaherawhchu a sipaite a hruaikir hma ngeia South Vietnam humhim chu a tum lian ber a ni.
North Vietnam sipaite leh an sangawizawnpui Khmer Rouge hel pawlte chuan Cambodia ramah bu an khur a. Chu an hmunpui chu khawngaihna tel miah lova boom chhe vek turin President Johnson-a khan hma a lo hruai tawh a. President Nixon-a pawhin chu an thil tum (Operation Menu) tia an koh chu thlawpin Cambodia ram chhunga North Vietnam sipaite leh Khmer Rouge hel pawlte chu khawngaihna tel hauh lova boom turin thuchhuah a siam a, April 30, 1959 khan America mipuite hmaa tlangauvin North Vietnam chu an han boom ta a, North Vietnam tan chuan boom ruahsur an do a ni ber mai. (Mithiamte chhut dan chuan President Johnson leh Nixon-a ten North Vietnam an boom hi Khawvel Indopui II laia Tangrual sipaite boom thlak aiin a nasa zawk niin an sawi.)
 
Kum 1969 lai hawl vel khan President Nixon-a chuan North Vietnam nena inremna siam turin an hruaitute hnenah lehkha a thawn a. Remna siam tum chuan North Vietnam hruaitute leh President Nixon-a pawlte chu Paris khawpuiah an inhmukhawm ta a. Paris khawpuia inremna thu an sawi fel theih loh avangin President Nixon-a chu South Vietnam-a US sipaite tlawh turin a zin a, US commander-te leh Vietnam President Nguyen Van Thieu nen inhmukhawmin ro an rel ta a. Heti lai hian Vietnam atanga US sipaite a rang thei ang bera hruaikir leh vek turin President Nixon-a chu US mipuiten an nawr nasa em em mai a, amaherawhchu indona boruak a la zawh fel theih loh avangin President Nixon-a chuan US sipaite aiawh atan Vietnam sipaite dah a tum ta zawk a, chu a thil tum chu Vietnamization tiin hming a phuah nghe nghe a ni.
 
US mipui lungawi lo ten kawng an zawh mek laiin US sipai rorelna sang ber Pentagon atangin kum 1971 khan Daniel Ellsberg-a chuan Vietnam indonaa America a tel chhan tih thu pawimawh tak mai a ti likchhuah a. Chu chanchin chu The New York Times leh The Washington Post-te chuan khawvelah an thehdarh a, President Nixon-a chuan an chanchin thehdarh chu hliahkhuh tumin theih tawp a chhuah a, mahse US Supreme Court chuan ro a relsak tho a ni.
 
Kum 1973 khan Paris khawpuiah Inremna thuthlung (Paris Peace Accord) siam fel a ni a, chumi hnu chuan US sipaite chu an vaia hruai haw leh vek an ni a, volunteer siapi bak lo chu an kir leh vek a ni. America sipaiten Vietnam an chhuahsan hnuah indona a chhuak leh a, mahse Vietnam sipaite chuan theih tawp chhuahin an do va, kum 1975 khan North Vietnam chuan South Vietnam chu hnehin an kuthnuaiah an dah thei ta a ni.
 
Middle Eastern policy
 
Nixon-a President a nih lai hian Middle East ramte nena an indawrtawnna a tha hle a, Israel, Iran leh Saudi Arabia-ah te ralthuam tam tak a hralhchhuah a. Sipai chakna hmanga ral do danah US chuan kalphung fel tak a ruahman a. A lungrualpui ramten buaina an tawh chuan US in direct-a a sipaite thawn mai lovin anmahni leh mahni inven dan tur ruahmanpui zawk tura thawhhona chu President Nixon-a middle east policy a ni a, chu policy chu Nixon Doctrine tiin an ko a ni.
 
Nixon-a hian kawng tin rengin Israel ram a thlawp a, a chhan chu Israel hian a ram thenawm Arab ramte nena inremna a siam a beisei vang a ni a, Suez luipui buaina (Suez Crisis) tih lovah chuan kawng engkimin Israel ram a tanpui a. Israel leh Arab ramte buaina chauh ni lovin Middle East pumpuia remna leh muanna siam chu a policy lian ber a ni.
 
Soviet Union chuan Arab ramah a ralthuam tam tak  a hralhchhuak a, chung ralthuam changkang tak tak hmang chuan October 6, 1973 khan Aigupta leh Syria ramten hmahruaiin Israel ram an do rawn a, chu indona chu Yom Kippur War tiin an ko va. Yom Kippur War-ah Israel-te chu a chanchhe zawkah an tang a, mahse Nixon-a chuan US sipaite tirin a rang thei ang berin  a rawn inrawlh nghal a. Israel chuan nasa takin a han beilet ve a, chutah zet chuan Arab ram zau tak mai chu Israel-in a la a, Aigupta President Anwar Sadat-a mangang chuan US leh Soviet Union-ten hmahruaia remna thu sawiho turin a ngen ta a. Mahse US chuan chu rawtna chu duh lovin President Nixon-a chuan a sipai DEFCON3 pawlte chu tirin a tul phawt chuan nuclear ralthuam pawh hmang turin a ti a, Nixon-a thiltih avangin General Secretary of the Communist Party Leonid Brezhnev-a a inbengdai ta hram a, he indonaah hian neuclear indona a thleng thelh thelh a ni.
 
US tanpuina avanga Israel-in hnehna a chang chu OPEC ramte an lungawi lo hle a, America rama khwnvartui leh gas an zawrh duh tawh loh avangin kum 1973 khan khawvelah khawnvartui harsatna (Oil Crisis) a thleng hial a ni. America rama khawvartui leh gas zawrh khap a nih takah chuan America ram chu buai na men lovin a buai a, Middle East buaina chinfel a nih hnuah erawh zawi zawiin boruak a rawn tha chho leh ta a. Indona a zawh fel hnu kum 1967 khan President Nixon-a chuan Aigupta nena indawrtawhna a siamthar leh a, State of Secretary Kissinger-hnenah pawh, “Middle East buaina chinfel a nih hma chuan buaina in tawp-in-tai a nei thei dawn lova, Middle East-a remna siam hi kan tihmakmawh leh kan ngaihpawimawh ber tur a ni,” tiin October 20, 1967 khan lehkha a thawn nghe nghe a ni. Presient Nixon-a chuan kum 1974 khan Israel ram a tlawh a, US President zinga Israel ram tlawh hmasa ber President a ni.
 
Ramchhung siamthatna (Domestic policy)
 
Vietnam Indonaa America in sum tam tak a hman avangin leh Middle East OPEC ramten America rama khawvartui leh gas hralhchhuah an khap avangin America Economic chuan nasa takin a tuar a, America pawisa hlutna chu 4.7 percent in a tlahniam nghal a ni. Indona avangin US in budget a tlin thei ta reng reng lova, budget deficits avangin hna nei lo an pung telh telh a, sum a punga puktuten an sumpung an rulh thei loh vangin America Economic chuan ram pui a sawinghing nasa hle a ni.
(Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) hi September 10-14, 1960 khan Iraq khawpui Baghdad-a din a ni a, Iraq, Kuwait, Iran, Saudi Arabia leh Venezuela ramte an tel a. Chumi hnu chuan Libya, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Indonesia, Algeria, Nigeria, Ecudor, Angola, Gabon ten an rawn zawm ve a. OPEC General Headquarter chu Geneva, Switzerland-ah a awm a, September 1, 1965 khan Vienna, Austria-ah an sawn leh ta a.)
 
President Nixon-a hian a tir takah chuan a ram chhung Economic siamthat aiin Foreign Policy-ah a hun a hmang tam zawk a, amaherawhchu hetianga America Economic in chhiatna rapthlak tak a tawn tak avangin President Nixon-a chuan ral do titawp vat a, America pawisa hlutna humhalh chu a rawt hnahnawh leh ta a. Nixon-a chuan kawng dang dang dapin America Economic siamtha a tum a, price and wage control lamah pawh kawng zau tak a han hawng a, amaherawhchu kum 1972 thleng khan America Economic chuan hma a sawm thei tak tak chuang lo a ni.
 
President term hnih a chhelh atang khan America inflation chu zawi zawiin a rawn ziaawm chho va, kum 1973 thleng khan wage and price control leh rangkachak man humhalhna lama hma a la zel a, nimahsela a ram mipuiten an that phah em em loh avangin April 30, 1974 khan zawi zawiin tihtawp a ni ta a.
 
Sawrkar rorelna lamah state leh local atanga an mi thlante hnena thuneihna hlan policy chu siamin New Federalism chu a din a, mahse chu idea chu Congress member ten an ngei thei lo hle a. Cabinet level-a kum rei tak an lo hman tawh United States Post Office Department chu kum 1971 khan a thiat a, United States Postal Service tiin hming a thlak a.
 
Kum 1970 khan Earth Day chu America ram pumpuia hmang turin a rawt a, 1970 June thlan khan Ram leilung humhalhna (Enviromental Protection Agency) (EPA) chu a din ta a. Hemi kum vek hian Boruak tha humhalhna (Clean Air Act) leh hnathawhna kawnga venhimna leh hriselna kawnga khawtlang inrelbawlna Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) pawh din a ni a, kum 1972 khan a mimal thuneihna (veto) hmanga tui thianghlim tura humhalhna (Clean Water Act) siam a ni bawk a, hemi thila sum hman chungchangah Congress nen an inhnial nasa hle a ni.
 
Kum 1971 khan mi rethei zawkten awlsam zawka hriselna lama inenkawlna tha an dawn theihna turin health insurance reform a siam bawk a, Chu organization chu Health Maintenance Organization tiin an ko va, kum 1973 khan bill pass fel a ni.
 
Ram chhunga mipui retheite mai abakah Vietnam raldona atanga hliampui tuarten awlsam zawka damdawi an lam theih nan War on Drugs policy siam a ni a, zirna leh research tana budget an hman pawh titam turin theih tawp a chhuah a, kum 1971 February khan National Sickle Cell Anemia Control Act tiin hming a sign bawk a ni.
 
Watergate scandal
 
November 7, 1972 Election khan Democratic Party candicate California Governor McGovern chu khingin President tern hnihna atan a in candidate leh a, chutah chuan Governor McGorvern chu vote zaa sawmruk (60 percent) zetin a hneh a, Election awm tawh zingah chuan America history-a hnehna hmu tam ber a tling a ni. 
President term hnih a chhelh laiin Watergate Scandal avangin hmingchhiatna rapthlak tak a tawk a, he a thiltih hi khawvel hriat a nih avangin America history-a reh thei a ni tawh lova, hmingchhiatna zawnga hmingchhiatna rapthlak ber a tling hial a ni.
 
Watergate Scandal hi dan lova politic khelhna a ni ber mai a, June 17, 1972 khan Washington D.C.-a Democratics National Headquarter Watergate Complex-ah tu tih hriat loh mi 5 in a bangte chhuchhiain an lut ru a. An Office chhungah chuan telephone, spy camera leh tape record-na tha chi te kenglutin Democratic Party thuruk zawng zawng haichhuah tumin an suam a. The Washington Post reporter Carl Bernstein-a leh Bob Woodward-a te chuan “Deep Throat” tia hminglem invuah mi pakhat hnen atanga chanchin mak danglam tak an hriat chu America mipuite leh khawvel hriatah an puang ta dum dum a. Chu thuruk mai tak mai Senate-in a han chuichian meuh chuan Nixon-a leh a pawlte chuan FBI, CIA leh IRS hming chawiin political activist-hote an ruai a. Chu activist pawlte chuan politic-a an khingpui Democratic Party thiltih chi hrang hrang leh an phiarruknate haichhuah tumin kawng an sial a, he thila a bul tumtu ber chu Nixon-a leh a thawhpuite an lo ni hlauh mai a ni tih an hmuchhuak ta a. A tirah chuan Nixon-a leh a thawhpuite chuan zep bo an tum a, mahse an thiltih chu chiang taka haichhuah a nih hnu chuan an inzep zo ta ngang lova, an inpuang ta a ni.
 
(Deep Troat tih hming lem hmangtu hi Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Associate Director Mark Felt-a a ni a, Watergate Scandal tumah hian tu tih hriat ni lo mah se, Nixon-an a Office a chhuahsan hnu kum 31-ah amah leh amah a inpuang ta a, hetianga a inpuan lai hian Nixon-a thihna pawh kum 11 lai a rei tawh a ni.)
 
Watergate Scandal-a Nixon-a inhnamhnawihna chu America mipuite hriat a lo ni ta a. Nixon-a ngei pawhin thil sual lian tak a tihpalh thu sawiin America mipuite chu ngaihdam a dil a. Mahse mipui lungawilote chuan kawng zawhin a rang thei ang bera Office chhuahsan turin an ngen a. Chutianga buaina a sosan mek lai chuan Nixon-a Vice President Agnew pawh Maryland Governor a thawh laiin income taxes, chhiah a pek loh avang leh thamna pawisa a lo lak avangin October 10, 1973 khan a nihna atanga bantir a ni a. Nixon-a chuan Agnew-a thlaktu atan House of Representatives member zinga Gerald Ford-a a thlang ta a.
 
Kum 1974 kumtirh atang khan Nixon-a thuruk tape record leh telephone record chu chhuizui nghal a ni a, April 1974 khan Nixon-a chuan White House-a an ti ti a lo record transcript phek 1,200 zet mai chu US Senate-te hmaah a puangzar a, House of Judiciary Committee chuan chu lehkha phek pawimawh tak chu May 9, 1974 khan TV network hmangin US mipuite hmuhah a puangzar leh ta a. Nixon-a chuan tape record leh telephone record pawimawh zawkte a hlan phal loh avangin US rorelna sang ber Supreme Court chuan tihluihnain a hlan luih tir a, Nixon-a chuan engmah zep theih reng a nei ta lo. US Supreme Court vek chuan Nixon-a tape record pawimawh ber “The Smoking Gun Tape” chu August 5, 1974 khan a hlan luihtir a, Nixon-a chu Watergate Scandal-ah a mawhphurtu ber tih haichhuah a nih hnu chuan Supreme Court chuan President nihna atanga bang turin thuchhuah a siam nghal a, Nixon-an a Office a chhuhsan ngei ngei a tul ta a ni.
 
White House a chhuahsan 
 
Supreme Court-in President nihna atanga bantir tura thiamloh a chantir hnu chuan Nixon-an political lam tang a nei ta meuh lova, mualpho taka bantir a nih hmain US mipuite hmaah thupha a chawi a, Oval Office atanga a thuchah hnuhnung ber chu radio leh TV network atangin US mipuiten an ngaithla thiap a. August 9, 1974 khan amah leh amah banna lehkha a thehlut a, mualpho takin a Office a chhuahsan ta a ni. Chumi hnu chuan a Vice President Geral Ford-a chu President atan thlan a ni a, President Gerald Ford-a chuan Nixon-a thil sual tih zawng zawng chu September 8, 1974 khan Oval Office-ah ngaidamna thuchhuah “Full, Free, and Absolute Pardon” siamin tanin leh hremna zawng zawng pawh a pumpelh ta vek a.
 
Nixon-a pawhin ngaihdam hmiah anih chu a lawm hle a, ngaihdam a nih chungchanga thuchhuah siamin, “Watergate chungchangah dik lo leh fel lo takin thil ka ti a, rorelna sang bera ka chungchang an rel mai ni lovin hnam hming tichhetu ka ni hi a zahthlakin a mualphothlak hle a ni. Watergate avangin US president nihna, ka zah em em US dan leh ka hmangaih em em US hnam hming ka tichhia a, chumi avanga ka rilru natna leh ka inchhirna hi eng thumal maha sawifiah thiam rual a ni lo,” tiin US mipui hriatah a inpuang ta a ni.

A hun hnuhnung leh a thih dan
 
US President nihna bansana White House a chhuahsan hnu chuan La Casa Pacifica, San Clementa, California-ah an chhungkuain an cheng ta a.
 
October 1974 khan nasa takin a dam lova, Damdawiina a mut lai chuan President Ford chuan a va kan a, a doctor-in zai i nih loh chuan thih bak thlan tur a awm tawh lo a tih avangin Nixon-a chuan zai chu a thlang ta a. Damdawiina hun rei tak hun a hman hnu chuan zawi zawiin a rawn thachho leh a. A chenna in atanga hla vak lo Coast Guard-a office pakhat buatsaihin chumi hmunah chuan infiamna chi hrang hrang a buatsaih a. Chutianga hun a hman lai chuan President a nih laia a thil tawnhriatte leh thil awm dan zawng zawngte chu ziakin lehkhabuah a siam a. Kum 1978 khan The Memoirs of Richard Nixon tih lehkhabu a chhuah a, a hun lai chuan America rama bestseller a tling hial a ni.
 
July 19, 1990 khan a pianna Yorba Linda, California-ah a hming pualin zirna sikul a hawng a, President Ford, Reagan, Geore H.W. Bush leh an nupui Betty, Nacy leh Barbara-i ten chu sikul chu an thlawh a, kum 1991 January khan Nixon Center tih a hawng bawk a, he hmunah hian Washington policy think tank leh Conference chi hrang hrangte hman thin a ni a, tunah chuan Center for the National Interest tia koh a ni.
 
June 22, 1993 khan a nupui Pat Nixon chu chuap natna in a thi a, a vuina service program pawh Richard Nixon Library-a hman a ni a, Billy Gramham-ah vuina hunserh a kaihruai bawk. Nixon-a pawh April 18, 1994 khan zeng natna rapthlak tak a tuar a, a taksa ding lam zawng a thih avangin a tawng thei lova, chutichuan New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center-ah an dahlut nghal a. Mahse a natnak rapthlak tak chuan a thluak lam a lo fan vek tawh avangin April 22, 1994 zan dar 9:08 pm-ah chuan kum 81 mi niin a thi ta a.
A ruang chu Nixon Library-ah an zalh a, April 27, 1994-ah vuina program siam a ni. Vuina program-ah President Bill Clinton, Henry Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, George W.H. Bush leh an nupuite an tel a, America mi zahawm tak tak Secreatary of States Henry Kissenger, Senate Minority Leader Bob Dole, California Governor Pete Wilson-a te an tel a, Evangelist Billy Graham-an vuina program a kaihruai bawk.

Nixon-a ruang chu Nixon Library-a a nupui Pat Nixon nen hmun khatah an phum a, Nixon-a thih hian a fanu pahnih Trica, Julie leh a tu palite a kalsan a, amah suntu mipuite chu mel 3 zet an intlar a, mi 42, 2000 in an thlah liam a ni.
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